New Hampshire's first militia units are organized
History of the New Hampshire National Guard
The New Hampshire National Guard as a militia for self-defense can be traced back to 1623 and the first settlements near the mouth of the Piscataqua River in Portsmouth, NH. By 1631, At Fort Point in New Castle, a defensive artillery earthworks was established to protect artillery and provide an effective field of fire housing several brass cannons. The colonists were equipped with an arsenal of firearms and other weaponry. Later, a wooden fortification and more brass cannons became Fort William and Mary, and today Fort Constitution continues to occupy this original site.
New Hampshire's militia units fight in various conflicts against the natives and their French allies
During the Revolution (1775-1783), elements of New Hampshire's militia fought at Bunker Hill, Saratoga, Trenton and Monmouth.
In the War of 1812 (1812-1814), the militia served in campaigns along the Canadian border.
New Hampshire raises one regiment for service in the Mexican War (1846-1848), commanded by COL (and future president) Franklin Pierce.
During the Civil War (1861-1865), New Hampshire organized 17 infantry regiments plus one cavalry and one artillery for the Union Army. Most saw combat at Antietam, Fredericksburg and Gettysburg.
One New Hampshire regiment served during the Spanish-American War (1898-1899).
For the Mexican border crisis of 1916, the state deployed one infantry regiment to Laredo, Texas.
When America entered WWI (1917-1918), the 1st New Hampshire Infantry sailed to France and became the First Army Headquarters Regiment. Most of the rest of the state militia was assigned to the 26th Division and fought in six campaigns in France.
During WWII (1941-1945), the 172nd Field Artillery Battalion fought in Northern Europe while the 197th Coast Artillery (Antiaircraft Artillery) served first in Australia and later in the Philippines.
Two New Hampshire units were mobilized during the Korean War (1950-1953).
The 3rd Battalion, 197th Artillery, served in Vietnam in 1968-1969.
The 744th Transportation Company served in Desert Storm (1990-1991).
Since 9/11, more than half of the soldiers and airmen of New Hampshire's Guard have deployed overseas in support of the Global War on Terror.